We report one-dimensional pinning of a single ion by an optical lattice. A standing-wave cavity produces the lattice potential along the rf-field-free axis of a linear Paul trap. The ion’s localization is detected by measuring its fluorescence when excited by standing-wave fields with the same period, but different spatial phases. The experiments agree with an analytical model of the localization process, which we test against numerical simulations. For the best localization achieved, the ion’s average coupling to the cavity field is enhanced from 50% to 81(3)% of its maximum possible value, and we infer that the ion is bound in a lattice well with over 97% probability.