updated ESUR Contrast Medium Safety Committee guidelines
PURPOSE: To update the guidelines of the Contrast Media Safety Committee (CMSC) of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR) on nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and gadolinium-based contrast media. AREAS COVERED: Topics reviewed include the history, clinical features and prevalence of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and the current understanding of its pathophysiology. The risk factors for NSF are discussed and prophylactic measures are recommended. The stability of the different gadolinium-based contrast media and the potential long-term effects of gadolinium in the body have also been reviewed. KEY POINTS : • Clinical features, risk factors and prevention of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis are reviewed • Patients with GFR below 30 ml/min/1.73 m ( 2 ) have increased risk of developing NSF • Low stability gadolinium contrast media show the strongest association with NSF • Following guidelines regarding gadolinium contrast agents minimises the risk of NSF • Potential long-term harm from gadolinium accumulation in the body is discussed.