1 Section of Neurology, Psychiatry and Sensory Sciences, Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet2 unknown3 Department of Clinical Medicine, Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet4 Department of Clinical Medicine, Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet
BackgroundNXN-188 is a combined neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitor and 5-hydroxytryptamine 1B/1D (5-HT(1B/1D)) receptor agonist. Using preclinical models, we evaluated whether these two unique therapeutic principles have a synergistic effect in attenuating stimulated calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release, a marker of trigeminal activation.MethodsWe examined the effect of NXN-188 on: (1) KCl-, capsaicin- and resiniferatoxin (RTX)-induced immunoreactive CGRP (iCGRP) release from isolated preparation of rat dura mater, trigeminal ganglion (TG) and trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC); and (2) capsaicin- and electrical stimulation (ES)-induced middle meningeal artery (MMA) dilation in a rat closed-cranial window.ResultsNXN-188 inhibited: (1) KCl-stimulated iCGRP release from dura mater (% decrease mean ± SEM, lowest effective concentration) (35 ± 6%, 30 µM), TG (24 ± 11 %, 10 µM) and TNC (40 ± 8%, 10 µM); (2) capsaicin- and RTX-induced iCGRP release from dura mater; and (3) capsaicin- and ES-induced increase in dural artery diameter (32 ± 5%, 3 mg kg(-1) intravenous (i.v.) and 36 ± 1%, 10 mg kg(-1) i.v.).ConclusionsNXN-188 inhibits CGRP release from migraine-relevant cephalic tissues. Its effect is most likely mediated via a combination of nNOS-inhibition and 5-HT(1B/1D) receptor agonism in dura mater while the mechanisms of action for inhibition of CGRP release from TG and TNC have to be investigated further.