1 Department of Mathematics, Technical University of Denmark2 Discrete mathematics, Department of Mathematics, Technical University of Denmark3 Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Technical University of Denmark4 Université Catholique de Louvain5 Tsinghua University6 Katholieke Universiteit7 Tsinghua University
This paper considers—for the first time—the concept of key-alternating ciphers in a provable security setting. Key-alternating ciphers can be seen as a generalization of a construction proposed by Even and Mansour in 1991. This construction builds a block cipher PX from an n-bit permutation P and two n-bit keys k 0 and k 1, setting PXk0,k1(x)=k1⊕P(x⊕k0) . Here we consider a (natural) extension of the Even-Mansour construction with t permutations P 1,…,P t and t + 1 keys, k 0,…, k t . We demonstrate in a formal model that such a cipher is secure in the sense that an attacker needs to make at least 22n/3 queries to the underlying permutations to be able to distinguish the construction from random. We argue further that the bound is tight for t = 2 but there is a gap in the bounds for t > 2, which is left as an open and interesting problem. Additionally, in terms of statistical attacks, we show that the distribution of Fourier coefficients for the cipher over all keys is close to ideal. Lastly, we define a practical instance of the construction with t = 2 using AES referred to as AES2. Any attack on AES2 with complexity below 285 will have to make use of AES with a fixed known key in a non-black box manner. However, we conjecture its security is 2128.
Advances in Cryptology – Crypto 2012: 32nd Annual Cryptology Conference, Santa Barbara, Ca, Usa, August 19-23, 2012. Proceedings, 2012, p. 45-62