BACKGROUND: Pregnane X, encoded by the gene NR112, is a nuclear receptor whose primary role is to promote the detoxification and clearance of drugs and other foreign compounds from the body. AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze associations between NR1I2 polymorphisms, immunosuppressant drug exposure, and clinical outcomes in adult kidney transplant recipients. METHODS: Exposures to tacrolimus, mycophenolic acid, and total and free prednisolone were estimated at month 1 posttransplant using validated multiple regression-derived limited sampling strategies. RESULTS: In the 158 subjects studied, median (interquartile range) dose-adjusted exposure to tacrolimus was significantly higher in individuals carrying the NR1I2 8055T variant allele, when compared with exposure in wild-type individuals [20 (14, 22) μg·h/L/mg versus 15 (9, 24) μg·h/L/mg; P =0.0007]. Using multivariable logistic regression, NR1I2 8055T carrier status was independently predictive of higher dose-adjusted tacrolimus exposure (P=0.0005). Moreover, BK viremia was seen significantly more frequently in NR1I2 8055T allele carriers compared with wild-type individuals (38% vs 18%, P=0.005) and possession of the NR1I2 8055T allele imposed significantly higher odds of BK viremia (adjusted odds ratio, 2.76 [95% confidence interval, 1.33-7.73]; P=0.006). No significant difference in geometric mean peak BK viral replication titer was observed between 8055T carriers and noncarriers. No NR1I2 SNP or haplotype was significantly, independently associated with total or free prednisolone or MPA exposure. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate an impact of pregnane X receptor polymorphisms on tacrolimus pharmacokinetics. Association of the 8055T allele with BK viremia suggests clinically significant "overimmunosuppression" in individuals with this genotype.
Transplantation, 2012, Vol 94, Issue 10, p. 1025-32