An unusually large G-light band between 2 G-dark bands in the proximal long arm of chromosome 16 was found in a boy of 5 years of age ascertained with growth retardation, microcephaly, and dysmorphic features. Dual color bacterial artificial chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization (BAC FISH) and oligonucleotide array comparative genomic hybridization (oaCGH) were used to show that these bands contained a euchromatic duplication of a minimum of 940 kb between base pairs 34,197,413-35,137,025 in 16p11.2-p11.1 as well as a duplication of the centromere and major 16qh/16p11.2 heterochromatic block, covering a minimum of 12.3 Mb. The same pseudo-dicentric chromosome was found in the father who has attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The euchromatic region is not known to be subject to imprinting and overlaps multiple large copy number variations (CNVs) in the Database of Genomic Variants as well as similar CNVs that are benign or of uncertain significance in the International Standards for Cytogenomic Arrays database. We conclude that this family has a novel pseudo-dicentric euchromatic variant of chromosome 16 that is unlikely to be the cause of the variable phenotype in father and son but needs to be distinguished from heterochromatic variants or pathogenic duplications of proximal 16q.
Cytogenetic and Genome Research, 2012, Vol 139, Issue 1, p. 59-64