Background: Knowledge of the factors associated with individual differences in patient-reported outcomes is essential to identify high-risk patients and improve secondary prevention. Design: In this meta-analysis, we examined the association between Type D personality and the individual differences in patient-reported physical and mental health status among cardiovascular patients. Methods: A computerized search of the literature through PUBMED and PsychINFO (from 1995 to May 2011) was performed and prospective studies were selected that analysed the association between Type D personality and health status in cardiovascular patients. Two separate meta-analyses were performed for the association of Type D personality with physical and mental health status, respectively. Results: Of all identified studies, ten studies met the selection criteria. The meta-analyses showed that Type D was associated with a two-fold increased odds for impaired physical health status (3035 patients, OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.49-2.52) and a 2.5-fold increased odds for impaired mental health status (2213 patients, OR 2.55, 95% CI 1.57-4.16). There was no significant heterogeneity between the studies on physical health status (Q = 12.78; p = 0.17; I(2 )= 29.59), but there was between those on mental health status (Q = 21.91; p = 0.003; I(2 )= 68.04). Subgroup analyses showed that the association between Type D and mental health status decreased yet remained significant when adjusting for baseline health status. Conclusion: Type D personality was shown to be an independent correlate of impaired patient-reported physical and mental health status in various cardiovascular patient groups. Clinicians should be aware of the association between chronic psychological distress and poor patient-reported outcomes.
European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 2012, Vol 19, Issue 6, p. 1373-1380