1 Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark2 Systems Analysis, Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark3 DTU Climate Centre, Systems Analysis, Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark4 UNEP Risø Centre, Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark5 Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad6 Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark7 Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro8 Pembina Institute9 University of Exeter10 Jadavpur University11 Japan Science and Technology Agency12 Centro Mario Molina13 Obafemi Awolowo University14 Center for Energy Efficiency15 Engen Petroleum16 Global Green Growth Institute17 White Box Technologies18 Climate Works Foundation19 Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad20 University of Exeter21 Jadavpur University22 Japan Science and Technology Agency23 Obafemi Awolowo University
The aim of this paper is to assess how policy goals in relation to the promotion of green growth, energy security, pollution control and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions have been aligned in policies that have been implemented in selected countries during the last decades as a basis for discussing how a multi objective policy paradigm can contribute to future climate change mitigation. The paper includes country case studies from Brazil, Canada, China, the European Union (EU), India, Japan, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa, South Korea and the United States covering renewable energy options, industry, transportation, the residential sector and cross-sectoral policies. These countries and regions together contribute more than two thirds of global GHG emissions. The paper finds that policies that are nationally driven and that have multiple objectives, including climate-change mitigation, have been widely applied for decades in both developing countries and industrialised countries. Many of these policies have a long history, and adjustments have taken place based on experience and cost effectiveness concerns. Various energy and climate-change policy goals have worked together in these countries, and in practice a mix of policies reflecting specific priorities and contexts have been pursued. In this way, climate-change mitigation has been aligned with other policy objectives and integrated into broader policy packages, though in many cases specific attention has not been given to the achievement of large GHG emission reductions. Based on these experiences with policy implementation, the paper highlights a number of key coordination and design issues that are pertinent to the successful joint implementation of several energy and climate-change policy goals.
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 2014, Vol 19, Issue 1, p. 45-71
Climate change policies; Developing and industrialised countries; Coordination of multiple energy and climate change policy goals