Nielsen, Mette Skovgaard1; Almdal, Kristoffer3; van Lelieveld, A4
1 Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark2 Amphiphilic Polymers in Biological Sensing, Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark3 Center for Nanostructured Graphene, Center, Technical University of Denmark4 unknown
This study searches for small molecules, which can be generated by photoacid generators (PAGs) capable of inducing the tetragonal-to-monoclinic transformation in zirconia nanocrystals. Metastable tetragonal zirconia nanocrystals were exposed in alcohol suspension. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that water, HCl, HF, and NH3, all initiate phase transformation of tetragonal zirconia at room temperature, whereas NBu4Cl and NBu4OH do not. 2-(4-Methoxystyryl)-4,6-bis(trichloromethyl)-1,3,5-triazine) was the most efficient (monoclinic volume fraction reached 0.57) out of the four tested PAGs. For dispersion in a dimethacrylate matrix together with zirconia crystals, a monoclinic volume fraction of 0.19 was observed after 2 min of exposure to light, increasing to 0.6 after 30 min.
Journal of Composite Materials, 2012, Vol 46, Issue 23, p. 2911-2917