A sandwich panel is described by an axisymmetric lumped mass- spring model. The panel compliance is simplified, considering only core shear deformation uniformly distributed across the core thickness. Transverse penetrating impact is modeled for impactors of diameters comparable to the panel thickness but significantly smaller than panel length dimensions. Experimental data for the total loss in impactor kinetic energy and momentum and estimated damage energy are described. For a selection of impactor tip shapes, the numerical model is used to evaluate different simplified force histories between the impactor and the panel during penetration. The force histories are selected from a primary criterion of conservation of linear momentum in the impactor-panel system, and evaluated according to agreement with the total measured energy balance.
Journal of Sandwich Structures and Materials, 2007, Vol 9, Issue 6, p. 553-570