Classical American Overseas Missionary Universities and the State
There is growing awareness and understanding of the role of non-state actors for the smart power of states. However, there is not yet a clear understanding of the impact of the political context and the state for non-state actors and their soft power. We look at American missionary universities in the Middle East and China: the American University of Beirut and the American University in Cairo as well as Yenching University as representative of the more than 20 American missionary universities in China before 1949. AUB and AUC survived wars, civil wars, and US-Middle Eastern animosity because of state and non-state tolerance of a bicultural presence, appreciation of transnational ties and US financial support. The PRC did not tolerate such a bicultural presence, and the USA did not tolerate American civil society engagement in PRC destroying the transnational academic relations between PRC and USA.
China and the World: Theatres of Soft Power, 2015, p. 161-172