The "actorness" of the European Union in external relations is still, also after the Lisbon Treaty, only partially developed. However, the EU has built up a considerable Structural Power towards its suroundings, mainly due to its big Internal Market. a Power of attraction and geographical spillovers are traceable in many fields, also politically. The Structural Power works, however, with a different intensity across policy fields and geographical areas.
European Union After Lisbon: Polity, Politics, Policy, 2012, p. 45-61