1 Urban Design, The Technical Faculty of IT and Design, Aalborg University, VBN2 Department of Architecture, Design and Media Technology, The Technical Faculty of IT and Design, Aalborg University, VBN3 Centre for Mobility and Urban Studies, The Technical Faculty of IT and Design, Aalborg University, VBN
Shaping the Urban Landscape
The spatial problems encountered in urban areas, for instance "sprawl", "the fragmented town" etc. However, the critic should concentrate more on a small "network" of a few architects and planners, including an inspector (C. D. Buchanan, UK) and a single policeman (H. Alker Tripp, UK) who were heavily involved in the process of integrating the car as an element in the planning of urban areas and developing recommendations for road planning principles in urban areas. These road planning principles were a spin-off of a pure urban planning ideology but was primarily used to solve the massive road safety and accessibility problems in the urban areas created by the car. The strong ideal shared by the people within the "network" were based on the dictum "forms follow function" about mans behaviour, the car and the structure of the urban areas and was based on very little empirical research. The use of the urban planning thoughts expressed as road planning principles indicated and supported a changing perception of the urban areas, although people in the "network" (Le Corbusier, F. and Clarence S. Stein, US) had very different ideas about how the urban ideal itself should be expressed. Basically, the recommendation concerning traffic and specifically the car was the same, segregation. This shift in perception had spatial implications: Firstly through the recommendation of turning the individual urban (residential) areas inwards or upwards i.e. away from the car traffic on the streets. Secondly the recommendation concerning the orientation of the individual (residential) buildings - the most important facades on (residential) buildings should face the sun or nature and not the street. Thirdly through the recommendation of combing particular functions in particular urban areas - schools in residential areas, business and industry in industrial areas etc. and thereby created highlysegregated urban areas and segregated traffic on the streets in the areas.