Throughout the years several investigations have either recommended or discredited exfoliative urine cytology because of high incidence of false negative or false positive results. Most authors agree that high grade bladder tumors are diagnosed with fairly high certainty (80-87%) by using exfoliative urine cytology whereas the value of urine cytology of low grade bladder tumors is uncertain. This investigation, including 200 patients who came for cystoscopic control of bladder tumors, revealed 87% accordance between cystoscopic biopsy and exfoliative urine cytology of high grade tumors while there were 47% false negative and no false positive of low grade tumors. On this background, it must be concluded that exfoliative urine cytology is an important investigation in diagnosing and controlling patients with bladder tumors, but the method can not always stand alone.
Ugeskrift for Laeger, 1989, Vol 151, Issue 50, p. 3400-1