Prognostic factors for chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) are identified. In WAD grade I-III, 50% report neck pain after one year (30% in background population). There is a female preponderance among WAD cases. 10% develop a work disability, but no gender differences are found. Age, crash issues, magnetic resonance imaging of the neck and smooth-pursuit-neck-torsion-test are of no prognostic value. While reduced active neck mobility is associated with a 4.6 times raised risk for work disability after one year, the impact-of-event score yielded an increase in OR of 3.3, and intense pre-injury distress was associated with a 2.1 OR for pain after one year and a 2.8 OR for work disability. Intense headache/neck pain and a multitude of non-painful complaints were both associated with a 3.5 to 4.0 times raised risk of work disability after a year.
Ugeskrift for Laeger, 2010, Vol 172, Issue 24, p. 1821-4