A derivation of the fluctuation-dissipation (FD) theorem for the frequency-dependent specific heat of a system described by a master equation is presented. The FD theorem is illustrated by a number of simple examples, including a system described by a linear Langevin equation, a two-level system, and a system described by the energy master equation. It is shown that for two quite different models with low-energy cutoffsa collection of two-level systems and a system described by the energy master equationthe frequency-dependent specific heat in dimensionless units becomes universal at low temperatures, i.e., independent of both energy distribution and temperature. These two models give almost the same universal frequency-dependent specific heat, which compares favorably to experiments on supercooled alcohols.
Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, 1996, Vol 54, Issue 22, p. 15754-15761