In this chapter we offer an analytical framework sensitive to the quality of citizen participation, which is measured in terms of transferred power from the governors to the citizens, and in terms of the degree to which citizens have access to accountability measures. We do this by combining Arnstein’s (1969) classic ladder of participation with a focus on citizen participation in regard to bureaucratic accountability, centered on efficiency and learning (cf. Bovens et al. 2008).
Oxford Handbook of Public Accountability, 2014, p. 258-272
Accountability; Citizen participation
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Oxford Handbooks in Politics and International Relations