To investigate the hypothesis that interleukin 1 initially stimulates and then suppresses beta-cell function and that this sequential effect is directly related to interleukin 1 dose, duration of exposure, and ambient glucose concentration, insulin release was measured from cultured newborn rat islets exposed for 6 h to 6 days to interleukin 1 at doses ranging from 20 to 2000 ng/l at glucose concentrations of 3.3, 5.5 and 11 mmol/l. After 6 h of exposure and at all three glucose levels, all doses of interleukin 1 stimulated insulin release, maximal stimulation (370% of control) being observed at 5.5 mmol/l glucose and 100 ng/l interleukin 1. In contrast, after 6 days, all doses of interleukin 1 were inhibitory irrespective of glucose level, maximal inhibition (90%) being observed at 11 mmol/l glucose and 2000 ng/l interleukin 1. At 24 and 48 h of exposure, the biphasic effect of interleukin 1 was observed: lower doses of interleukin 1 at lower glucose concentrations at 24 h being more stimulatory with transition to inhibition directly related to higher glucose levels, higher interleukin 1 doses, and longer exposure. After 48 h, 200 ng/l of interleukin 1 increased insulin release to 220% at 3.3 mmol/l glucose, but at 11 mmol/l glucose a 60% suppression was seen. On the basis of these data we suggest that interleukin 1's effect on beta-cells is bimodal: stimulation followed by inhibition. Increasing interleukin 1 dose and ambient glucose concentration shift this response to the left. Experimental results will, and in vivo effects may, depend upon these three variables.
Acta Endocrinologica, 1988, Vol 119, Issue 2, p. 307-11
Animals; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Glucose; Insulin; Interleukin-1; Islets of Langerhans; Rats; Rats, Inbred Strains; Time Factors