Anticoccidial agents or coccidiostatics are the only anti-bacterial substances still authorised as feed additives within the European Union (Vincent et al. 2011). Anticoccidial agents are used for the prevention of the disease coccidiosis, which is caused by a unicellular intestinal parasite. Coccidiosis is a major disease in poultry as well as in many other hosts. Ionophores are the most heavily applied sup-group of the two sub-groups of anticoccidial agents, because they also have antibacterial properties. After the ban of antibiotic growth promoters Ionophores are used extensively worldwide as prophylactic chemotherapeutics and growth promoters in livestock production. As an example, the yearly consumptions of active compounds are more than 10 tonnes in Denmark and for the Republic of Korea more than 800 tonnes (Hansen et al. 2009a, Kim et al. 2008). In long term this could cause problems with resistance in the treatment of coccidiosis. Several reports have revealed that ionophores are emerging environmental contaminants in agricultural run-off waters, surface waters, sediments, and ground waters, due to their continuously increased and constant application as feed additives in modern livestock production (Dolliver et al. 2008; Hansen et al. 2009a and 2009b). Recent investigations has further reported that metabolites of certain veterinary drugs such as antibacterial agents (i.e. tetracyclines) and antiparacitics (i.e. ionophores) posses an environmental effects of similar level as their parent compounds on the soil bacterial community (Halling-Sørensen et al. 2002; Hansen et al. 2009c). The focus of the present study is on the recent advances of a new analytical method for sampling, extraction and detection of ionophores in liquid matrices. The hyphenated method consists of an integrated clean-up with solid phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem in space mass spectrometry. Preliminary results for the HPLC-MS/MS method determine the limit of detection (LOD) for five ionophores in the range of 10 - 25 ng kg-1 and limit of quantification (LOQ) in the range of 25 – 100 ng kg-1. Vincent U, Ezerskis Z, Chedin M, von Holst C (2011) J Pharm Biomed Anal 54, pp 526-534 Halling-Sørensen B, Sengelov G, Tjørnelund J (2002) Arch Environ Contam Toxicol, 42: 3, pp. 263-271 Dolliver H, Gupta S (2008) J. Environ. Qual. 37: 2 pp. 1227-1237. Hansen M, Björklund E, Krogh KA, Halling-Sørensen B (2009a) TrAC 28:5 pp521-533. Kim Y, Jung J, Kim M, Park J, Boxall ABA, and Choi K (2008) Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 26:167-176 Hansen M, Krogh KA, Björklund E, Brandt A, Halling-Sørensen B (2009b) TrAC 28:5 pp534-542. Hansen M, Krogh KA, Brandt A, Christensen JH, Halling-Sørensen B (2009c) Environ Poll 157: 2 pp. 474-480.
The Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences; Section of Toxicology
Main Research Area:
3rd EmCon 2011: International conference on analysis of emerging contaminants in the environment