Origins and developments, differences and similarities
In order to identify continuity or change this paper analyzes the development processes of the Management by Objectives and Results (MBOR) discourse over time in central government in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. The paper shows that MBOR has been marked by continuity since its introduction in the 1980s, and has become a central element in the steering and management of agencies in central government in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Nevertheless gradual changes that have altered the direction of the MBOR discourse over time can also be identified. The direction changes from autonomy and a simple MBOR sys-tem in the early years toward more control and a more comprehensive system in the 1990s, and back again toward more autonomy and a less comprehensive MBOR system in recent years. The development processes in the three countries are characterized by some differences, but seem also to share numerous similarities. Explanations of these differences and similarities are discussed in the final section of the paper.
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American Society for Public Administration Annual Conference, 2013