1 Section for Linguistics, Faculty of Humanities, Aarhus University, Aarhus University2 School of Communication and Culture - Linguistics, School of Communication and Culture, Arts, Aarhus University3 School of Communication and Culture - Linguistics, School of Communication and Culture, Arts, Aarhus University
The purpose of this contribution is to discuss non-standard speech forms of Romani and other languages in the larger context of bystander deixis, a subcategory of social deixis. First I will propose a three-way classification of instances of bystander deixis and illustrate them with examples from Romani and several other languages across the globe. The second part is concerned with the contextual factors that must have a place in a discourse model that wants to be able to handle linguistic manifestations of bystander deixis. Due the fact that Romani has typically been used for in-group communication, this language presents a particularly rich source of information in the area of secret languages and other forms of bystander deixis. Moreover, as is also made abundantly clear in this volume, many jargons, trade varieties, secret languages and other more or less non-standard speech varieties have borrowed extensively from the Romani lexicon. It will appear that bystander deixis is a universally attested phenomenon which is not restricted to situations in which speakers wish to communicate without being understood by others.