The three main lines of research on teachers are the ones concerned with beliefs, knowledge and identity. The two first are generally based on acquisitionism, the last is more participationist. This leads to some incoherence. I introduce an ongoing study that aims to develop a coherent approach, using a patterns-of-participation framework, which was initially developed in relation to beliefs. It is a multiple case study that views instruction as the simultaneous engagement in multiple, possibly conflicting social practices. The data presented are about Anna, a novice, lower secondary teacher. The interpretations of the practices that unfold in her classroom suggest that there is some potential in the patterns-of participation perspective.