Mannan-binding lectin (MBL), a human plasma protein, plays an important role in the innate immune defence. MBL recognizes microorganisms through surface carbohydrate structures. Due to genetic polymorphisms, MBL plasma concentrations range from 5 to 10,000 ng/mL. Approximately 30% of the human population have low levels of MBL (below 500 ng/mL). MBL deficiency is associated with increased susceptibility to infections in immunosuppressed individuals, e.g., during chemotherapeutically induced neutropenia. Replacement therapy with MBL may be beneficial in this patient group, and recombinant human MBL (rhMBL) is in development as a novel therapeutic approach. To assess the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of rhMBL, a placebo-controlled double-blinded study was performed in MBL-deficient healthy male subjects. rhMBL was administered as both single intravenous (i.v.) infusions (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 mg/kg) and repeated i.v. infusions (0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg given at 3-day intervals). There were no difference in incidence and type of adverse events reported in the study between the groups of subjects receiving rhMBL and the placebo group. All adverse events reported as drug-related were mild and no serious adverse events were recorded. There were no clinically significant changes in laboratory evaluations, ECG or vital signs, and no anti-MBL antibodies were detected following rhMBL administration. After single i.v. doses of rhMBL the maximal plasma levels increased in a dose-dependent manner reaching a geometric mean of 9710 ng/mL+/-10.5% in the highest dose group (0.5 mg/kg), with an elimination half-life of approximately 30 h. No rhMBL accumulation in plasma was observed following repeat dosing. Administration of rhMBL restored the ability to activate the MBL pathway of the complement system without non-specific activation of the complement cascade.In conclusion, no safety or tolerability concern was raised following rhMBL administration no signs of immunogenicity detected, and an rhMBL plasma level judged sufficient to achieve therapeutic benefit (>1000 ng/mL) can be achieved.