This study is one in a series of investigations into quality improvement practices and trends in Europe. In the present piece historical influences on quality in the Czech Republic are examined. Examples from various business sectors are provided. The Czech Republic is confronted by serious business, economic, and environmental challenges that must be overcome if it is to successfully compete with its more prosperous Western European neighbors and globally. Historic Czech pragmatism and resourcefulness, wed with quality improvement efforts offer a partial solution to the Czech dilemma.