1 Department of Marketing and Statistics, Aarhus School of Business, Aarhus BSS, Aarhus University2 MAPP - Centre for Research on Customer Relations in the Food Sector, Aarhus School of Business, Aarhus BSS, Aarhus University3 Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus BSS, Aarhus University4 Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus BSS, Aarhus University
The Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ) is tested for cross-cultural validity. Measurement characteristics are compared across representative consumer samples from 25 European countries (total N = 37,592) using multi-group confirmatory factor analysis with structured means. The results suggest the PVQ is invariant in terms of its factor configuration, factor loadings, item intercepts, factor variances, and factor covariances, and only slightly biased in terms of its item reliabilities. It can be concluded that, across European countries, PVQ responses vary on common invariant interval scales. Hence, most direct comparisons of PVQ raw scores and sample statistics between European countries are valid without correction. Furthermore, it can be concluded that the ten values measured by the PVQ are invariant across European countries in terms of their relative position on the quasi-circumplex hypothesised by the theory of basic human values.
Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ); Cross-cultural validity; Measurement invariance; Confirmatory factor analysis; European Social Survey; MAPP