A qualitative study of the use of journalism on culture
The news values of journalism are constantly evolving. Kabel (1999), for example, demonstrates how Danish news, since the late 1980s, have increasingly prioritised stories with relevance to the everyday life of the readers - indicating identification and proximity as central news values in contemporary journalism. In relation to cultural and lifestyle journalism more specifically, it does, however, also seems that broadsheet newspapers insist on more traditional public values by combining issues of traditional public relevance with issues related to the private sphere (From & Kristensen 2008). Hereby, newspapers are simultaneously addressing the readers as both participating citizens and consumers and by this means inviting readers to potentially shuttle from very different reading positions - from, for example relaxation, escapism, to being advised, informed, educated etc. Moreover the online newspapers often engage people to participate in producing content creating new ways of being an active audience. Departing from quantitative and qualitative audience studies of the use and reception of culture and lifestyle journalism in the Danish press (completed in Autumn 2008 and Spring 2009), this paper empirically demonstrates, on the one hand, how audiences, in a Danish context, use their daily print and online newspapers in a range of ways and, on the other hand, how they negotiate the mix of modes of address across sections and within articles. Theoretically the analyses draw on socio cognitive perspectives and develops a typology of how traditional demographic variables, different media types (print and online) and the conglomerate of discourses - that is, the rhetoric of pleasure and consumption of the advertising industry, and the traditional focus of journalism on reflection and information - may interrelate. Precisely this mix, it will be argued, represents a more general change as to the role and identity of journalism - from both a content and reception perspective.