We report a case of relapsing Haemophilus influenzae meningitis in a boy at the age of nearly 3 years and 4.2 years who had been successfully vaccinated against H. influenzae serotype b (Hib). The pathogen was a nonencapsulated (nontypable) H. influenzae strain of biotypes III and VI, respectively. A rhinobasal impalement injury with development of a posttraumatic encephalocele is considered to be the predisposing condition. Review of the literature reveals that in patients systemically infected by nonencapsulated H. influenzae strains predisposing factors such as cerebrospinal fluid-shunts, implants and traumas are often found. To obtain further information on potential new disease patterns H. influenzae isolates from cerebrospinal fluid should be examined for capsule production and, if relevant, further characterized by capsular typing.