This paper examines the effect of different tillage treatments and cover crop on soil physical, chemical and biological properties of a sandy loam soil in a long-term field trial set up in 2007 at Foulum, Denmark. The experimental design is a split plot design with different tillage practices (direct drilling (D), harrowing (H) to a depth of 8 cm and ploughing to a depth of 20 cm (P)) as main plot. The soil was cropped with cover crop (+CC) or left without cover crop (-CC) as split plot treatments in the main plots with different tillage treatments. We assessed topsoil structural quality in field using a visual method, measured unsaturated hydraulic conductivity at -4 hPa in field and determined aggregate size distribution after a drop shatter test for soil taken from 10-20 cm depth. The drop shatter test data showed significantly lowest mean weight diameter (MWD) for P than for H and D, indicating better friability. The interaction between cover crop and tillage treatments was significant. That is cover crop had a positive effect on direct drilling (D) (lower MWD) but not on P and H. In general there was no significant different between tillage and cover crop treatments on visual soil evaluation, although the effect of tillage was almost significant (p~0.067). Better scores were found for P than for H and D. The interaction between tillage and cover crop was almost significant (p~0.097). Cover crop tended to improve scores mainly for P. There was no treatment effect on Kunsat. We conclude that P improved soil quality compared to H and D, especially when combined with cover crop. We also conclude that D may benefit from cover crop to yield better soil friability and hence soil quality.