The Southeast Asian mangrove palm Nypa fruticans Wurmb occurs in large, monospecific stands in estuaries and along rivers. It is the only member of the subfamily Nypoideae, which derived early in palm evolution and is known from a fossil record extending back in time at least 70 millions years. During the global thermal maximum in the Eocene, 57–35 million years ago, Nypoideae had a pantropical distribution. Today, the only representative of the subfamily is distributed from Sri Lanka in the west, across the Malesian region to the Solomon Islands in the east. The naturalization in West Africa and Central America reflects that this species is dispersal-limited in its present day distribution. Although Nypa fruticans provides a number of ecosystem services, it is threatened in many places due to human pressure and lack of efficient management plans. In this presentation I describe central elements of the biology of Nypa fruticans and discuss its reproductive ecology from an evolutionary and management planning perspective.