This paper presents a framework for measuring cooperation in terms of whether parties reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by more than what they would have done unilaterally, i.e. in the absence of international targets. The framework is applied to the Kyoto Protocol. The findings suggest that the negotiations can be conceptualized as a prisoner's dilemma; that only a few parties behave cooperatively; and that the scope for international cooperation is limited.
Kyoto Protokol; UNFCCC; Kyoto Protocol; International cooperation