This article will set the context of democratic leadership in Scandinavian countries. This concept is being discussed in a dual perspective: On one hand there are pressures to transform the governing of the schools towards a more 'rigorous' form of New Public Management (NPM) with models of leadership/management from the world of business and industry. This trend is seen as an effect of economical and cultural globalisation, and the discourse of NPM seems to have a rather strong influence on how munici-palities organize and govern the schools in Scandinavia. On the other hand there is a growing conscious-ness of the need for sustaining trust and loyalty in the school as an organisation. This may be seen as an effect of the European / Scandinavian societies becoming increasingly more complex. Societies are often called hyper complex societies with no one single centre from where government can be exercised. The governing of the public sectors therefore has largely to rest on trust and communication.
Cambridge Journal of Education, 2003, Vol 33, Issue 3