Many advertising people believe that theoretical models hamper creativity and efficiency in the development of advertising messages. This need not be the case, if the theoretical models are sufficiently flexible and intelligible. On the contrary, a workable model that describes how the advertisement influences the target may serve as creative inspiration and as a common frame of reference for those involved in the development of advertisements. The means-end-chain model says that an advertisement is effective by connecting the product's attributes (means) and the target's personal values (ends). MAPP's experience with the model indicates that it is both flexible and intuitively accessible to practicians. In order to study this MAPP and the Danish Fruit Growers' Association asked an advertising agency to produce two campaign proposals with the purpose of getting young people to eat more apples. One proposal, which is based on the meansendchain model, tries to establish a connection between the vitamin and energy content of apples and the personal value: quality of life. The other one is made in the traditional fashion, ie without the use of theoreticalmodels. Its message is that apples cure hangovers. Both proposals were tested on 500 young people in Copenhagen. The results of this test point to the conclusion that the apple-vitamin-energy-quality of life message is more powerful than the cure hangover-message. How does the means-end-chain model work as a frame of reference? All the advertising people were positive. The Danish Fruit Growers' Association was also predominantlypositive towards the model and the results were used as the basis for a discussion of how apples were best sold to young people.