1 Department of Engineering, Science and Technology, Aarhus University2 Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center - INANO-MBG, Gustav Wied 10, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center, Science and Technology, Aarhus University3 Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center - INANO-MBG, Gustav Wied 10, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center, Science and Technology, Aarhus University
Enzymes, through the last 20-30 years research and development, have been widely explored for the uses in oil and oilseed processing. Following the conventional processing technology from oilseeds, the oil can be produced through pressing or solvent extraction. The crude oil is then refined to meet edible requirements. The oil can be also modified to meet functional or even nutritional needs. In each of those steps, enzymes have been used in industry successfully. For the oil processing stage, enzymes have been used to destroy the cell structure so that makes the oil release easier, where conventionally high temperature conditioning or cooking is necessary. The good story in industry is the fish oil and olive oil processing. Good quality and higher oil yield have been achieved through the use of enzymes in the processing stages. For the refining stage, the use of enzymes for degumming has resulted in a number of commercial processes with different phospholipases or other enzymes. Enzyme assisted deacidification has been also used for practical operation including the treatment of deodorization distillates. For the oil modification stage, numerous applications have been reported where the details are difficult to be described here. The typical commercial applications include cocoa butter equivalents, human milk fat substitutes, margarine fat (instead of chemical interesterification), diglyceride oil, medium chain containing products, polyunsaturated fatty acids concentrates, etc. The applications have extended the oil and fat processing technology in a new dimension. Those uses will step by step move into the main stream operation in the oil and fat industry.