We hypothesize a fit betwen national cultural environment of the organization and contingency variables subject to managerial discretion. Such a hypothesis implies that national cultures is a contextual variable in contingency thoery and uses emperically derived culture contingency theory to argue that national culture chracteristics affect management's choices as to how to organize and manage people. A tightly matched population of 4400 city managers from 14 Western countries constitutes strong material for the analysis as cultural and behavioral variables were directly analyzed. Findings suggest that bureaucratic tools of management are positively correlated with uncertainty avoidance and masculinity and negatively correlated with individualism. In addition, relationship management is negatively correlated with power distance but positively correlated with individualism. Normative aspects of management are negatively correlated with uncertainty avoidance. We derive a number of important implication for organization design theory and practice.
Organization Design: Evolving State-of-the Art, 2006, p. 103-121