The Scandinavian learners' lexicography has developed as a response to the needs of the refugees and immigrants arriving since the 1960's and has, as such, found its own ways. Learners' dictionaries have primarily been designed to meet their needs in terms of learning one of the Scandinavian languages. The dictionaries are mainly bilingual, written by the immigrants themselves or by language teachers without any lexicographical training, but with a profound knowledge of the real needs of learners. A number of Scandinavian learners' dictionaries constitute highly praiseworthy pioneer works without being characterized by high lexicographical standard. The only exception is the Swedish Lexin project which consists of a monolingual "parent" dictionary to which a number of bilingual dictionaries are attached. This project represents innovative lexicographical thinking made possible through public funding.