Lee, Jihyun3; Lee, Jong-Hyun2; Kim, Chan-Kook2; Thomsen, Marianne3
1 Department of Environmental Science - Emission modeling & enviromental geography, Department of Environmental Science, Science and Technology, Aarhus University2 NeoEnBiz3 Department of Environmental Science - Emission modeling & enviromental geography, Department of Environmental Science, Science and Technology, Aarhus University
Since early 20th century, phthalates have been used as plasticizers and among these, Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBP) and Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) have been widely used. However, as adverse health effects such as endocrine disrupting effects were reported, these compounds have been restricted for use in children’s products and they are also listed in Annex XIV of the EU REACH. However, these chemicals are still produced and used in many products. In 2002, approximately 10% of the world’s phthalates demand was produced in South Korea, while Denmark has no phthalate production. In order to protect human health equally, risk management systems need to include territorial varying background environmental qualities when modeling aggregate exposure. This study presents probabilistic assessments of multiple sources and routes to childhood phthalate exposure in Denmark and Korea. Varying environmental qualities and dietary intake patterns were taken into account using a Monte Carlo Model for calculating childhood aggregate exposure via the environment and food. Additionally, childhood activity related exposure from consumer products were calculated for selected product scenarios and by using dust as an indicator of indoor exposure. Total exposure to the three phthalates, DEHP, BBP and DBP, is compared taking into account different activity patterns and life styles of children in Denmark and Korea. Multivariate data analysis verifies the relationships between varying source intensities, background qualities and total exposure. It is shown that different source intensities and exposure factors of these two countries result the differences in the contribution of each exposure route to the total risks. We suggest how to improve the equal protection of the environment and human health by linking REACH with the Danish and Korean national chemical and environmental management system.