Atmospheric concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychloronaphthalenes (PCNs) were measured for the first time in Nuuk, Greenland in 2004 and 2005. The annual mean concentrations af the measured OCs were: α-HCH 20.2 pg m-3, Υ-HCH (lindane) 5.1 pg m-3, endosulfan 4.8 pg m-3 and dieldrin 1.9 pg m-3. Concentrations of ∑-chlordanes, DDEs and heptachlor epoxide were generally similar and lower than those of α-HCH and Υ-HCH. The concentrations of most chlorinated pesticides did not show any clear seasonal variation, with the exception of Υ-HCH, which had maximum concentration in August in both years. The average annual mean for ΣPBDEs was 1.14 ± 0.81 pg m-3. The predominant congeners measured in Nuuk were BDE-47 and BDE-99 followed by BDE-100, -153 and -28, indicating the use of penta-BDE technical products as the main source. A clear seasonal variation of PBDE concentrations was observed with maximum concentrations occurring in the summer months. The ∑PCNs concentrations ranged between 0.062 and 0.258 pg m-3 with an annual mean concentration of 0.161 ± 0.0004 pg m-3. The PCNs profile was dominated by the tetra-PCNs(74% of the annual mean) and the penta-PCNs (18% of the annual mean). A seasonal trend for ∑PCNs was not observed. Atmospheric concentrations of the investigated compounds were correlated with temperature and anthropogenic CO in order to obtain information about their transport pattern. Positive correlations were found between CO and chlordanes, p, p' DDE and trifluralin, while a negative correlation was found for Υ-HCH. A significant correlation with temperature variations was found for dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, α-HCH, Υ-HCH, BDE-47, BDE-99 and tetra-PCNs, which indicates that re-emission of these compounds from previously contaminated surfaces as an important factor for the observed variations in concentrations.
Atmospheric Environment, 2008, Vol 42, Issue 31, p. 7293-7303
Greenland; Atmosphere; Chlorinated and brominated persistent; Organic pollutants