Abstract Why did two rounds of EU constitutional reform held within a five year period yield very different results? The 2000 IGC resulted in the modest Treaty of Nice, whereas the 2002-04 round drafted the Constitutional Treaty, which although it did not involve major substantive changes, did mark a major symbolic step forward. This article argues that the change in outcomes can to a large degree be explained by the change in negotiating structure due to the use of a convention that drafted most of the Constitutional Treaty's text, creating a context which privileged MEPs. While the outer bounds of the possible were set by governments, the EP was able to build coalitions around ambitious yet realistic positions, leading to a final text that was a major symbolic step forward.
Journal of European Public Policy, 2007, Vol 14, Issue 8, p. 1271-1292
Constitutional Treaty; European Convention; European Parliament; 2000 IGC