ZnO is a material of great scientific and everyday relevance; it is used widely in all sorts of application. Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles can be performed by a wide assortment of methods and a tremendous variety of sizes and shapes, it has been suggested that ZnO is the one known compound showing the broadest range of nanostructures. Previously many different in-situ characterization methods have been used to investigate the ZnO formation under various synthesis conditions; these include UV-VIS and SAXS. These methods were primarily used to give information on particle size of ZnO formed using soft chemical methods and non-aqueous solvents. In our work we have studied the formation of ZnO during hydrothermal syntheses using in-situ powder X-ray diffraction, thus enabling us to extract crystallographic as well as microstructural information. The data was analyzed using Rietveld refinement and whole powder pattern modeling. Among the parameters studied were the influence of temperature, type of base used and how different ionic salts influence the growth. Results include findings that suggest that sodium nitrate influences the aspect ratio of synthesized particles and that lithium nitrate generally promotes growth.
ZnO; In situ powder X-ray diffraction; Nanoparticle formation
Main Research Area:
Sustainable Manufacturing of Nanomaterials and their Organization for Hybrid Device Structures, 2013