Competition and cooperation stabilize and structure business networks. In business research there is little focus on network based competition between firms and on how firms compete to gain network position. We review a range of conceptualizations of competition and cooperation and work towards a meaning of network competition and network cooperation based on goal structures within activity structures inside a firm network context. We conclude by presenting a framework to understand how network competition and cooperation are played out. We complete the paper with the opportunities for future research and also managerial thinking about network strategy and implementation.