Christiansen, Bettina3; Brøndsted, Lone3; Vogensen, Finn K.4; Hammer, Karin1
1 Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark2 Center for Systems Microbiology, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark3 Department of Microbiology, Technical University of Denmark4 Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University
The integration system of the temperate lactococcal phage TP901-1 was characterized in Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris LM0230 and MG1363 with the use of deletion derivatives of the integration vector pBC143 (B. Christiansen, M.G. Johnsen, E. Stenby, F.K. Vogensen, and K. Hammer, J. Bacteriol. 176:1069-1076, 1994). The phage-encoded elements necessary for integration were localized on a 2.8-kb NsiI-EcoRI fragment including the phage attachment site, attP. This fragment was DNA sequenced, and sequence analysis revealed three putatively expressed open reading frames, Orf1, Orf2, and Orf3. By the introduction of mutations within the orf1, orf2, and orf3 genes, it was shown that only Orf1 was necessary for the integration process. Furthermore, it was found that Orf1, attP, and a 425-bp region upstream of the orf1 gene are suficent for integration. Orf1 contains 485 amino acids and is located just upstream of attP. The N-terminal 150 to 1180 amino acids of Orf1 showed 38 to 44% similarity to the resolvase group of site-specific integrases, while no similarity to know proteins was found in the C-terminal end. Bacteriophage 'TP901-1 therefore contains a unique integration system that does not resemble the Int class of site-specific integrases usually found in temperate bacteriophages. The constructed integration vector, pBC170, integrates into the chromosomal attachment site very efficiently and forms stable transformants with a frequency corresponding to 20% of the transformation efficiency.
Journal of Bacteriology, 1996, Vol 178, Issue 17, p. 5164-5173