Two new red pigments were synthesized by nucleophilic addition of vinylphenols to malvidin 3-glucoside. The structures of the resulting pyranoanthocyanins were confirmed by electrospray-mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy (gHMQC gHMBC and CIGAR experiments). By means of UV-vis spectroscopy the colour properties of the pigments were characterized; it could be demonstrated that the pyranoanthocyanins retained their red colour at pH 3.6 in model wine and were resistant to bisulfite-mediated bleaching. Finally, HPLC-MS analysis confirmed the presence of both anthocyanin-derived pigments in red wine.
Tetrahedron Letters, 2003, Vol 44, Issue 26, p. 4887-4891