Timber is normally dried by kiln drying, in the course of which moisture-induced stresses and fractures can occur. Cracks occur primarily in the radial direction due to tangential tensile strength (TSt) that exceeds the strength of the material. The present article reports on experiments and numerical simulations by finite element modeling (FEM) concerning the TSt and fracture behavior of Norway spruce under various climatic conditions. Thin log disc specimens were studied to simplify the description of the moisture flow in the samples. The specimens designed for TS were acclimatized to a moisture content (MC) of 18% before TSt tests at 20°C, 60°C, and 90°C were carried out. The maximum stress results of the disc simulations by FEM were compared with the experimental strength results at the same temperature levels. There is a rather good agreement between the results of modeling and experiments. The results also illustrate the strong decrease of TSt with increasing temperature at a constant MC level.
Holzforschung, 2014, Vol 68, Issue 1, p. 133-140
Cracks; Drying of wood; Finite element modeling (FEM); Moisture content (MC); Physical properties of wood; Tangential tensile strength