Development and validation of new analytical methods
The objective of this study has been to develop new analytical methods using the rapid, simple and solvent-free extraction technique solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the quantitative analysis of organic pollutants at trace level in drinking water and environmental samples. The dynamics of SPME were examined for halogenated and non-halogenated volatile hydrocarbons, and a standard method for their quantitative analysis in aqueous samples was developed and validated in inter-laboratory studies on the basis of reference material and in comparison with the traditional methods. The influences of some possible interferences on the SPME process were examined, and new SPME probes were tested for the in situ monitoring of groundwater pollutants. Inter-laboratory studies were carried out also for the validation of SPME for the quantitative analysis of organochlorine, organonitrogen and organophosphate pesticides and triazine herbicides together with their metabolites in aqueous samples. SPME combined with gas chromatography proved to be a precise, accurate and sensitive technique for water analysis. Also SPME combined with high performance liquid chromatography was tested, and a method for the combined analysis of four classes of polar herbicides was developed. Throughout the studies with aqueous samples the main purpose has been to evaluate and optimise the quantitative aspects of the SPME analysis. With calibration by standard addition also the quantitative analysis of soil samples by SPME was feasible in spite of the strong matrix effects. Finally, SPME was applied to flavour analysis and two new methodologies were established for the classification of microbiological fungi.