1 Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark2 Wind Energy Division, Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark3 Meteorology, Wind Energy Division, Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark4 Department of Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
Wind power meteorology has evolved as an applied science, firmly founded on boundary-layer meteorology, but with strong links to climatology and geography. It concerns itself with three main areas: siting of wind turbines, regional wind resource assessment, and short-term prediction of the wind resource. The history, status and perspectives of wind power meteorology are presented, with emphasis on physical considerations and on its practical application. Following a global view of the wind resource, the elements of boundary layer meteorology which are most important for wind energy are reviewed: wind profiles and shear, turbulence and gust, and extreme winds. The data used in wind power meteorology stem mainly from three sources: onsite wind measurements, the synoptic networks, and the re-analysis projects. Wind climate analysis, wind resource estimation and siting further require a detailed description of the topography of the terrain – with respect to the roughness of the surface, near-by obstacles, and orographical features. Finally, the meteorological models used for estimation and prediction of the wind are described; their classification, inputs, limitations and requirements. A comprehensive modelling concept, meso/micro-scale modelling, is introduced and a procedure for short-term prediction of the wind resource is described.