1 Meteorology, Wind Energy Division, Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark2 Wind Energy Division, Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark3 Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark4 Fluid Mechanics, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark5 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark6 Department of Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
This thesis includes the results of a PhD study about complex terrain and wind lidars. The study mostly focuses on hilly and forested areas. Lidars have been used in combination with cups, sonics and vanes, to reach the desired vertical measurement heights. Several experiments are performed in complex terrain sites and the measurements are compared with two different flow models; a linearised flow model LINCOM and specialised forest model SCADIS. In respect to the lidar performance in complex terrain, the results showed that horizontal wind speed errors measured by a conically scanning lidar can be of the order of 3-4% in moderately-complex terrain and up to 10% in complex terrain. The findings were based on experiments involving collocated lidars and meteorological masts, together with flow calculations over the same terrains. The lidar performance was also simulated with the commercial software WAsP Engineering 2.0 and was well predicted except for some sectors where the terrain is particularly steep. Subsequently, two experiments were performed in forested areas; where the measurements are recorded at a location deep-in forest and at the forest edge. Both sites were modelled with flow models and the comparison of the measurement data with the flow model outputs showed that the mean wind speed calculated by LINCOM model was only reliable between 1 and 2 tree height (h) above canopy. The SCADIS model reported better correlation with the measurements in forest up to ∼6h. At the forest edge, LINCOM model was used by allocating a slope half-in half out of the forest based on the suggestions of previous studies. The optimum slope angle was reported as 17º. Thus, a suggestion was made to use WAsP Engineering 2.0 for forest edge modelling with known limitations and the applied method. The SCADIS model worked better than the LINCOM model at the forest edge but the model reported closer results to the measurements at upwind than the downwind and this should be noted as a limitation of the model. As the general conclusion of the study, it was stated that the lidars can be used in complex terrain with the known limitations and the support of flow models.
Wind energy; Wind power meteorology; Risø-PhD-52(EN); Risø-PhD-52; Vindkraftmeteorologi; Vindenergi
Main Research Area:
Sørensen, Jens Nørkær, Mann, Jakob
Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, 2010