The development of the wind energy technology has been very successful from the 1970’s and up till now. Initially there was a battle between wind turbine concepts, but the commercial winner today is the three-bladed horizontal axis, upwind, electricity producing and grid connected wind turbine with availability on mature markets somewhere around 99%. An important contributor to the growth of the European market for wind energy technology has been EU framework legislation combined with legislation at the national level. The binding target for renewable energy in Sweden is proposed to be 49% of the final energy consumption in 2020 compared to 39.8% in 2005. To stimulate the development of wind energy and to promote a specific national goals Sweden is mainly using an electricity certificate system. The target is to increase the production of electricity from renewable sources by 17 TWh in 2016, relative to corresponding production in 2002. There is not at specific target for the use of wind energy. A future energy system that includes a high proportion of wind energy will be expected to meet the same requirements for security of supply and economic efficiency as the energy systems of today. The variability of wind power create a specific challenges for the future energy systems compared to those of today. The economics of wind power depends mainly of investment cost, operation and maintenance costs, electricity production and turbine lifetime. An average turbine installed in Europe has a total investment cost of 1.230 €/kW with a typically variation from approximately 1000 €/kW to approximately 1400 €/kW. The calculated costs per kWh wind generated power range from approximately 7-10 c€/kWh at sites with low average wind speeds to approximately 5-6.5 c€/kWh at good coastal positions, with an average of approximately 7c€/kWh at a medium wind site. Offshore costs are largely dependent on weather and wave conditions, water depth, and distance to the coast. The cost of wind generated power is higher for offshore wind farms that for on land ones ranging from approximately 6 c€/kWh to more than 9 c€/kWh. Assuming a learning rate at 10% and a doubling time of total installed capacity of four years the cost interval would in 2015 be approximately 4.8 to 5.5 c€/kWh for a coastal and inland site, respectively.
Samfund og systemer; Risø-R-1640; Risø-R-1640(EN)
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Elforsk Rapport 2500, Denmark. Forskningscenter Risoe. Risoe-r
Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, Risø Nationallaboratoriet for Bæredygtig Energi, 2008