This thesis has been prepared as one of the requirements of the industrial researcher and Ph.D- degree. This thesis represented the 2 nd version of this thesis. The work has been carried out from January 1999 to January 2002 at The Danish Institute of Fundamental Metrology (DFM) and The Institute of Manufacturing Engineering and Management (IPL), Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The work has been carried out under supervision from Dr. Jørgen Garnæs, DFM, Dr. Techn. Leonardo De Chiffre, IPL/DTU and Dr. Hans Nørgaard Hansen. I would like to thank my supervisors for their inspiration and valuable contributions to my work. Furthermore the staff from DFM and IPL/DTU is thanked for their interest and involvement. Image Metrology APS and Dr. Jan Friis Jørgensen in particular are thanked for their support and collaboration within the area of image analysis. Finally I would like to thank Dr. Kai Dirscherl and Mr. René Sobiecki for their big help to my project, and the Myhrwold foundation for financial support. ADC Denmark A/S has been an informal third part of this project represented by Jesper B. Rasmussen. The work has been funded by the Danish Academy of Technical Sciences (ATV) and DFM.