Vurdering af LBS-metodens anvendelse i byggeprojekter
The coordination of activities and resources in order to establish an effective production flow is central to the management of construction projects. The traditional technique for coordination of activities and resources in construction projects is the CPM-scheduling, which has been the predominant scheduling method since it was introduced in the late 1950s. Over the years, CPM has proven to be a very powerful technique for planning, scheduling and controlling projects, which among other things is indicated by the development of a large number of CPM-based software applications available on the market. However, CPM is primarily an activity based method that takes the activity as the unit of focus and there is criticism raised, specifically in the case of construction projects, on the method for deficient management of construction work and continuous flow of resources. To seek solutions to the identified limitations of the CPM method, an alternative planning and scheduling methodology that includes locations is tested. Location-based Scheduling (LBS) implies a shift in focus, from primarily the activities to the flow of work through the various locations of the project, i.e. the building. LBS uses the graphical presentation technique of Line-of-balance, which is adapted for planning and management of work-flows that facilitates resources to perform their work without interruptions caused by other resources working with other activities in the same location. As such, LBS and Lean Construction share the idea of creating a continuous resource usage with a minimum of waiting time and the avoidance of work disturbance. Even though LBS has a long history and is well-grounded theoretically, it has gained generally little attention in the construction industry. Besides the theoretical research available on LBS, some studies report on the application of LBS, but the empirical data on the practical implications of LBS must still be regarded limited. This study rests upon three case studies of residential projects carried out in Denmark in 2006. The purpose is to test and evaluate the practical implications of LBS when applied on site. The study concludes, with emphasis from the site management involved, that improved schedule overview, establishment of work-flows and improved project control constitute the three most important implications of LBS.