The aim of the NKS/SOS-1 project has been to enhance common understanding about requirements for nuclear safety by finding improved means of communicat-ing on the subject in society. The project, which has been built around a number of seminars, wassupported by limited research in three sub-projects: Risk assessment Safety analysis Strategies for safety management The report describes an industry in change due to societal factors. The concepts of risk and safety, safety management and systems forregulatory oversight are de-scribed in the nuclear area and also, to widen the perspective, for other industrial areas. Transparency and public participation are described as key elements in good risk communication, and case studies are given.Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment are described as important overall proces-ses within which risk communication can take place. Safety culture, safety indicators and quality systems are important concepts in thenuclear safety area, but they also offer important challenges for the future. They have been subject to special attention in the project.